论文题目：Mark Dincecco and Yuhua Wang.2018."Violent Conflict and Political Development over the Long Run: China versus Europe." Annual Review of Political Science 21: 341-358.
Is the traditional logic by which violent conﬂict fosters long-run political development universal? To help address this question, this article compares Europe with China. While historical warfare was very common across both units, representative government ﬂourished only in Europe. We suggest that the relationship between violent conﬂict and political development depends on the underlying political geography context. In Europe, political fragmentation was rampant. Thus, conﬂict tended to be external (i.e., interstate), and attack threats were multidirectional. Furthermore, exit ability was high in this context. Elites were therefore in a strong bargaining position to demand political representation in return for new tax revenue. China, by contrast, was politically centralized. Here, conﬂict tended to be internal, attack threats were unidirectional, and exitability was low. The emperor was thus powerful enough to extract tax funds without surrendering political control. In this context, violent conﬂict promoted autocratic re-entrenchment. We conclude by brieﬂy analyzing the relationships between political geography, historical conﬂict, and political development in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.